錢煦（1931年－）教授，中國科學院外籍院士。1931年出生于今北京市，1948年考取北京大學醫科，1949年隨父錢思亮去台灣，入台灣大學醫學院，1953年畢業，次年赴美深造，1957年獲哥倫比亞大學生理學博士。1976年當選“中央研究院”院士。今于美國加州大學聖地牙哥分校生物醫學工程研究院（Institute of Engineering in Medicine, UCSD）任職院長。他在力學對基因表達和信號傳導的影響、整體與系統生理學、分子、細胞與組織生物工程學、細胞膜的生化特性與分子構建、穿過血管的大分子輸運等學術領域做出了傑出貢獻。在國際上有影響的Nature、Science等學術刊物發表論文500餘篇，並完成9部經典論著。
2006年6月下旬，錢教授榮獲“美國藝術暨自然科學院”院士的證書，集全美四大院即美國科學院、工程院、醫學院、藝術暨自然科學院之院士于一身的殊榮。今時僅六名科學家囊括此四院院士的證書，其中四人已告老退休，錢煦先生是目前兩位仍于任上的學者之一。錢教授於1986年當選台灣中央研究院院士。2009 榮獲台灣中華民國總統科學獎， 2011榮獲美國國家科學獎章。
San Diego, CA, Sept. 27, 2011 – President Barack Obama today named University of California, San Diego bioengineering Professor Shu Chien one of the seven eminent researchers to receive the National Medal of Science, the highest honor bestowed by the United States government on scientists and engineers. Chien is the only engineer among the seven medalists.
Shu Chien, a professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering, is a world leader in the study of how blood flow and pressure affect blood vessels. Chien is a university professor of bioengineering and medicine at UC San Diego and Director of the UC San Diego Institute of Engineering in Medicine.
"Professor Shu Chien is truly remarkable. He is one of only 11 renowned scholars who are members of all three U.S. national institutes – the National Academy of Sciences; National Academy of Engineering; and the Institute of Medicine," said Chancellor Marye Anne Fox. "For more than 20 years, Shu has collaborated with UC San Diego colleagues across the campus and the Health Sciences while mentoring a generation of students and postdoctoral researchers. We celebrate this tremendous honor and congratulate him."
An expert on how blood flow and pressure affect vessels, Chien’s research has led to the development of better diagnostic tests and treatments for atherosclerosis, which refers to the hardening of the arteries, and other diseases.
"Shu Chien played a crucial role in forming the Jacobs School’s Department of Bioengineering and building it into a world class institution that is ranked number one for biomedical engineering by the National Research Council," said Frieder Seible, Dean of the Jacobs School of Engineering. "As Director of the UC San Diego Institute of Engineering in Medicine, Shu is now leading efforts to further strengthen research and educational collaborations between all six departments of the Jacobs School of Engineering and the School of Medicine and the Skaggs School of Pharmacy."
Chien joined UC San Diego in 1988 after he was recruited by Y.C. Fung and Benjamin Zweifach, who co-founded the bioengineering program at UC San Diego with Marcos Intaglietta.
"I regard recruiting Shu as my greatest contribution to UCSD," said Fung in 2005 when Chien received the Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award from the Asian American Engineer of the Year Awards Committee. Chien has held the Y.C. Fung Endowed Chair in Bioengineering since 2006.
The Department of Bioengineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering is a leader in systems biology, regenerative medicine and multi-scale bioengineering focused on understanding, diagnosis and treatment of human disease.
The UC San Diego Institute of Engineering in Medicine has research centers focusing on health and disease in cardiac, musculoskeletal, retina, and neurological systems; on medical devices and instrumentation technologies; multiscale imaging in living systems; and nano-medicine and nano-engineering. The institute also fosters student training, industry cooperation and entrepreneurism.
Shu Chien’s Research
Chien is widely known as an exceptional researcher, instructor, mentor, and citizen of the university and his professional community. His research integrates biomedical sciences and engineering across the biological hierarchy, from genes and molecules to cells and tissues to organs and systems.
Some of his more recent research has focused on the effects of mechanical forces – pressure and flow – on cellular functions such as gene expression. When genes change their expression, the proteins will change, and proteins are the major determinants of cell functions such as growth, migration and programmed cell death. His research has shown how the mechanical forces generated by circulating blood affect the functions of endothelial cells in health and disease. Endothelial cells line the interior surface of the body’s blood vessels throughout the circulatory system.
Chien’s research could explain why atherosclerotic lesions form preferentially at branches of coronary arteries. More specifically, this research uncovered the mechanical and molecular mechanism of the preferential distribution of atherosclerosis in regions of complex flow such as arterial branch points by establishing the differential signal processing and gene expression of endothelial cells in these regions as compared to regions resistant to atherogenesis, which is the process by which plaque forms in the arteries. These studies are being performed in collaboration with Julie Li and Shankar Subramaniam, professor and chair, from the Department of Bioengineering at UC San Diego, professors Juan Lasheras and Juan Carlos del Alamo from the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at UC San Diego, John Shyy from UC Riverside, Peter Wang from the Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and others in the United States, China and Taiwan.
Chien has worked with Karl Willert, director of UCSD’s stem cell core facility, and postgraduate researcher David Brafman, to develop an automated, computerized process that allows scientists to identify the best environments to grow stem cells. The experiments require mixing six proteins in a wide range of combinations. The machine developed by Chien’s team allows researchers to test hundreds of them at once. With UC San Diego bioengineering professor Shyni Varghese, these techniques are being extended to the screening of synthetic polymers for the optimal growth and development of stem cells. With UC San Diego bioengineering professor Adam Engler and material science professor Shungho Jin, Chien has examined how the physical and geometrical properties of the environments where stem cells grow can influence their development.
Shu Chien Biography
Chien was born in Beijing, grew up in Shanghai and was a premed student at National Peking University when he and his family went in 1949 to Taiwan during the turmoil of the Communist takeover of China. He received his medical degree from National Taiwan University and a Ph.D. in Physiology from Columbia University, where he served as professor from 1969 to 1988. During a sabbatical from 1987 to 1988, Chien founded Taiwan’s Institute of Biomedical Sciences in Academia Sinica.
Chien is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has published more than 500 archival journal articles and 11 books. He has served in leadership positions in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology（FASEB）, the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering（AIMBE）, as well as other professional societies.
National Medal of Science
The National Medal of Science was created by statute in 1959 and is administered for the White House by the National Science Foundation. Awarded annually, the Medal recognizes individuals who have made outstanding contributions to science and engineering.
"Each of these extraordinary scientists, engineers, and inventors is guided by a passion for innovation, a fearlessness even as they explore the very frontiers of human knowledge, and a desire to make the world a better place," President Obama said. "Their ingenuity inspires us all to reach higher and try harder, no matter how difficult the challenges we face."
Nominees are selected by a committee of Presidential appointees based on their extraordinary knowledge in and contributions to chemistry, engineering, computing, mathematics, and the biological, behavioral/social, and physical sciences.
National Medal of Science awardees with current faculty affiliations with UC San Diego：Margaret Burbidge, Shu Chien, Chancellor Marye Anne Fox, Michael H. Freedman, Yuan-Cheng Fung, Craig Venter, Andrew Viterbi and Walter Munk.
Past UC San Diego National Medal of Science recipients include Roger Guillemin, Charles Keeling, George Palade, Linus Carl Pauling, Roger Revelle, Marshall Rosenbluth and Harold Urey.