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盘点美国就业最好的和最差的专业(双语)
2013/2/18 17:01:22 | 浏览:1915 | 评论:0

Thousands of new college grads will enter the workforce this year, but with unemployment at 8.2% and underemployment near 18%, many will put off the taxing job search process and opt out of the weak job market to pursue graduate degrees.

美国今年将有成千上万的高校毕业生加入劳动力大军,但在美国失业率高达8.2%而未充分就业率接近18%的情况下,许多学生将推迟找工作,退出疲软的劳动力市场,继续攻读研究生学历。

With this in mind, Forbes set out to determine which master’s degrees would provide the best long-term opportunities, based on salary and employment outlook. To find the mid-career median pay for 35 popular degrees, we turned to Payscale.com, which lets users compare their salaries with those of other people in similar jobs by culling real-time salary data from its 35 million profiles. We then looked at the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ employment projection data to see how fast employment was expected to increase between 2010 and 2020 in popular jobs held by people with each degree. Finally we averaged each degree’s pay rank and estimated growth rank to find the best and worst master’s degrees for jobs。

出于这种考虑,福布斯着手从基于薪水和就业展望,判断哪些硕士学位会提供最好的长期机会。我们借助Payscale.com网站(用户可使用该网站3,500万份档案中的实时薪酬数据将自己的薪水与其他从事类似工作的人相比较),找到35个热门硕士学位的职业中期平均薪酬数据。然后我们关注美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的就业预测数据,看看2010年-2020年期间持各种热门学位的人所从事的热门工作,它们的就业增长有多快。最后,我们算出各个学位的薪资水平和预计就业增长水平的平均值,然后比较出对就业而言最好和最差的硕士学位。

As it turns out, although there are too few doctors in the U.S. and too few seats in medical schools, those shortages are good for one segment of the population:people who get degrees as physician assistants。

结果发现,尽管美国的医生数量太少,医学院的席位太少,而这些稀缺对有一部分人却非常有利,那就是取得医师助理硕士学位的人。

Physician assistants are medical professionals who provide diagnostic and preventative health care services under the supervision of doctors—and they’re in high demand。

医师助理是在医生监督下提供疾病诊断和预防性医疗保健服务的医疗专业人员。目前对医师助理的需求量非常大。

“Both an aging population and health care reform are contributing to a higher demand for health care services,” says Katie Bardaro, Payscale’s lead economist. “As fully capable medical professionals, physician assistants are able to alleviate the pressure on doctors by performing important and necessary health care tasks to this increasing pool of patients。”

“人口老龄化和医疗改革都对卫生保健服务有更大的需求,”Payscale网站的首席经济学家凯蒂·巴尔达罗(Katie Bardaro)说,“因为合格的医疗专业人员、医师助理可对数目逐渐增多的病人群体进行一些重要且必需的医疗处理,从而能够减轻医生的压力。”

They don’t earn as much as doctors, but their mid-career median pay is a whopping $97,000. Another advantage of a physician assistant degree:Employment opportunities are expected to grow 30% by 2020(from the 2010 employment numbers), according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics。

他们赚的不像医生那样多,但他们职业生涯中期的平均工资达到惊人的97,000美元。医师助理学位的另一项优势是:据劳动统计局的数据称,到2020年为止,其就业机会有望增加30%(从2010年的就业数字来看)。

Would-be physician assistants need to take certain science classes to prep for a master’s program, but they can earn undergraduate degrees in almost any field. The growing demand for them and the promise of fat paychecks put physician assistant degrees at the top of the heap in Forbes’ third-annual look at the best master’s degrees for jobs。

准医师助理需要读一些科学课程为研究生计划做准备,但他们可以获得几乎任何医疗领域的本科学位。持续增长的就业需求和丰厚的薪酬许诺使医师助理学位高居福布斯第三届最佳就业硕士学位榜榜首。

By our count, computer science follows close behind as the No. 2 best advanced degree for jobs。

计算机科学紧随其后,成为第二个就业最好的高等教育学位。

Mid-career median pay for these grads is $109,000, sixth best out of the 35 degrees in our survey. Employment opportunities for computer science degree-holders are expected to expand about 22% between 2010 and 2020.

这个专业的硕士毕业生职业中期的平均薪酬为109,000美元,在我们调查的35个学位中排名第六。计算机科学学位持有者的就业机会预计在2010年到2020年期间将扩大22%。

“In a technology driven world, the need for those who not only understand, but can improve upon technology is high,” Bardaro says. “As businesses of all types depend upon technology to get things done, computer science degree-holders will remain in high demand。”

“在一个科技驱动的世界中,对这些不仅懂技术还能提升技术的人的需求非常大,”巴尔达罗说,“随着各行各业都依赖科技完成工作,对计算机科学学位的需求会一直很大。”

Electrical engineering, physics and economics degrees also make the top 10, all with an average mid-career salary of more than $110,000 a year。

电气工程、物理学和经济学学位也在前十之列,这些专业的职业中期平均年薪都超过110,000美元。

A master’s in business administration(M.B.A)can also earn you six figures mid-career—but because of the poor growth outlook for common jobs held by these degree-holders, it doesn’t make the top 10 list。

工商管理硕士(M.B.A)也能帮你在职业中期赚到6位数,但由于这些学历持有者通常所从事的工作就业展望不佳,工商管理硕士不在前十之列。

Not all master’s degree holders enjoy anywhere near such optimistic job prospects or extraordinary pay. Getting a master’s in library and information science, English, music, or education can be extremely gratifying but pricy. Median mid-career median pay for all those degrees is under $63,000, and employment for them isn’t expected to grow significantly over the next few years。

不是所有硕士在所有领域都有与上述差不多的乐观工作前景或丰厚薪水。取得图书咨询学、英语、音乐或教育专业硕士学位的个人可能会获得极大的愉悦感,但“学费”高昂。这些专业职业中期平均收入在63,000美元以下,这些学位的就业在未来几年预计不会显著增长。

Library and information science degree-holders bring in $57,600 mid-career, on average. Common jobs for them are school librarian, library director and reference librarian, and there are expected to be just 8.5% more of them by 2020. The low pay rank and estimated growth rank make library and information science the worst master’s degree for jobs right now。

图书咨询学专业的硕士在职业中期平均收入57,600美元。他们通常的工作是学校图书馆员,而且预计到2020年为止其就业增长只有8.5%。薪资及未来增长的都处于低水平使得图书信息学目前来说是最不利于就业的硕士学位。

Biology, chemistry and history degrees are also toward the bottom of the list—but that doesn’t mean they’re useless. If you’re passionate about these fields, the lower pay and slimmer job prospects shouldn’t deter you from pursuing a master’s. However, it’s important that you ask yourself a few questions before you make that decision。

生物、化学和历史硕士也是垫底的硕士学位,但这不意味着他们毫无用处。如果你对这些领域有兴趣,较低的薪酬和较为狭窄的就业前景不应打消你攻读该专业硕士学位的念头。然而,做决定前问自己几个问题还是非常重要的。

Ask, “Is the program required to pursue a given career?” “What do the job opportunities look like?” and “Will the cost of the education outweigh the potential income?” If the answer to the last one is yes, then a master’s program is not the way to go, Bardaro says。

问问自己,“某一特定职业是否对这个研究生项目有要求?”“就业机会怎样?”“受教育的成本会大于过未来潜在的收入吗?”如果最后一个问题的回答是肯定的,那就不该选择研究生项目,巴尔达罗说。

Another thing to keep in mind:Master’s degree-holders don’t necessarily earn more than other people in similar jobs—so don’t base your decision to pursue one on the idea that you’ll bring in bigger paychecks。

另一点需要牢记的是:硕士赚得不一定比其他从事类似工作的人多——所以不要把攻读硕士的决定建立在赚更多的钱的基础之上。

“People may pursue a master’s degree in the hopes of a higher salary, but it doesn’t always work out,” she says. “Two absolute benefits of graduate education are increased knowledge in a field and the ability to set oneself apart from those with only a bachelor’s degree. However, these two things together might not be enough for a given person。”

“人们可以追求硕士学位以期未来拿更高的薪水,但这不一定行得通,”她说,“研究生教育对两方面上有着绝对裨益:一是某个领域的知识增长,二是把自己和只有本科学位的人区别开来。然而,这两点加起来对某一特定的人来说可能还不够。”

These may be the best and worst master’s degrees in terms of pay and employment opportunities, but it’s also important to think about work-life balance and employee satisfaction for the common jobs associated with these degrees. “You need to consider overall happiness,” Bardaro says. “If obtaining a master’s degree causes an imbalance due to time devoted to education and potentially more stress at work, then one will need to decide if these costs are worth it. Evaluating the benefits of a master’s degree is not just about the potential for higher pay, but also about the opportunities it will bring, the skills and knowledge it can provide, and overall satisfaction。”

从收入和就业机会两方面考虑,上述可能是几个最好和最差的硕士学位,但考虑工作和生活的平衡以及员工满意度也同样重要。“你需要考虑到全部幸福因素。”巴尔达罗说,“如果攻读一个硕士学位所花的时间及将来更多的工作压力,引起了一种失衡,那么你需要判断一下这样的代价是否值得。评估硕士学位带来的好处,不能仅仅是关乎获得更高薪水的可能性,还与它所带来的机会、所提供的技能和知识,还有整体满意度相关。”

美国大学生最向往的公司排行

This year Universum surveyed nearly 60,000 undergraduatestudents and asked them to name their “ideal” employers upongraduation. The resulting rankings reveal the companies newgraduates consider to be the most attractive prospective employerson the market. For business majors and IT students, Google reignssupreme. 49% of students with majors in information technologynamed the Mountain View company their number one pick.(For a pointof comparison, NASA, which was the top employer for engineeringstudents, was only called out by 17%)。

今年优信咨询调查了近60,000名美国大学本科生并要求他们在毕业之际说出心目中的“理想”雇主。产生的排名显示了在刚毕业的学生看来市面上最具吸引力最有发展前景的各个雇主。对于商科和IT专业的学生而言,谷歌力压群雄,49%信息技术专业的学生将这家山景城的公司列为首选。(相比而言,作为美国工科学生最大雇主的美国宇航局,只获得了17%的选票。)

Google has such appeal among undergrads that it quiteliterally reached the top by popular demand. Just six years ago itwasn’t among the companies that students were queried about, butafter so many undergrads wrote it in as a favorite it went straightto the top. Since then, it’s held either the number one or two spoteach year for multiple majors。

谷歌如此深受广大学生喜爱,真正成为了最受欢迎公司。而仅仅六年前,谷歌还不在学生们会问询的公司之列,但是如此多的大学生把它列为心仪公司之后,谷歌的排名直飚榜首。自那以后,每年在各个专业的学生最向往的公司评选中,它不是第一就是第二。

Also interesting? Kids are still lining up for jobs with J.P.Morgan and Goldman Sachs. Despite the troubled banking system inrecent years, business students are no less enthused by joiningfinancial institutions than they were pre-crash. According toCamille Kelly, VP of branding for Universom, banking continues tohold its appeal with millennials, and she thinks she knows why:they think they can make a difference. “This is a generation thatgenerally goes into any job opportunity thinking they’re going tobe the one to change the system,” she says. “Maybe they’re stillinterested in because they really want to make a difference。”

同样有趣的是,学生们仍在排队申请摩根大通(J.P. Morgan)和高盛(GoldmanSachs)的工作机会。尽管近年来银行业问题不断,商科学生加入金融机构的热情没有丝毫减退。按照优信品牌推广副总裁卡米尔·凯利(CamilleKelly)的说法,银行业在千禧一代人中仍然有吸引力,而且在她看来其中原因是:他们认为自己可以让情况有所不同。“这一代人无论走上什么工作岗位,都以为自己是能改变体制的人,”她说,“也许现在他们仍然有志于此因为他们真的想有所作为。”

Without further ado, the top 10 employers by major are:

各专业最佳十大雇主排名如下:

Business Majors

商科专业

No. 1 Google

1 谷歌

No. 2 Apple

2 苹果

No. 3 Walt Disney Company

3 沃尔特·迪斯尼(Walt Disney Company)

No. 4 Ernst &Young

4 安永(Ernst &Young)

No. 5 Deloitte

5 德勤(Deloitte)

No. 6 J.P. Morgan

6 摩根大通(J.P. Morgan)

No. 7 Nike

7 耐克(Nike)

No. 8 PriceWaterHouseCoopers

8 普华永道(PriceWaterHouseCoopers)

No. 9 Goldman Sachs

9 高盛(Goldman Sachs)

No. 10 KPMG LLP

10 毕马威(KPMG LLP)

Engineering Majors

工科专业

No. 1 NASA

1 美国宇航局(NASA)

No. 2 Boeing

2 波音公司

No. 3 Lockheed Martin Corporation

3洛克希德·马丁公司(Lockheed Martin Corporation)

No. 4 Google

4 谷歌(Google)

No. 5 General Electric

5 通用电气(General Electric)

No. 6 Apple

6 苹果公司(Apple)

No. 7 U.S. Department of Energy

7 美国能源部(U.S. Department of Energy)

No. 8 Exxon Mobil Corporation

8 埃克森美孚公司(Exxon Mobil Corporation)

No. 9 Walt Disney Corporation

9沃尔特·迪斯尼公司(Walt Disney Company)

No. 10 BMW

10 宝马公司(BMW)

 工作旅游两不误:可以边玩边干的五大职业

1. Consulting咨询

Consultants are problem-solvers, providing companies with expert advice on everything from management to marketing to IT. You won’t be tied to one company as a consultant; you’ll travel from city to city, visiting the businesses who need your help. These visits may be either short- or long-term, depending on just how much support a company needs。咨询师是解决别人问题的职业,他们为公司提供管理、市场营销、IT等方面的专业意见。作为咨询师,你不会只为一家公司提供服务,你会穿梭在各个城市,解决各种公司的难题。旅行时间会根据公司问题的棘手程度或长或短。

2. Travel Industry旅游业

If you want to travel, look for a job in the travel industry! This can be anything from working as a flight attendant or a pilot, to working on a cruise ship, to becoming a travel writer. Sure, much of the time you’re traveling, you’re also working, but you’re bound to have time to get out and explore the places you visit. And as a travel writer in particular, getting out and exploring is part of your job!如果你想旅行,那就在旅游行业找一份工作吧!可以是乘务员、飞行员、游艇上的工作人员或旅游作家。你工作的同时也在旅游,但是你肯定能挤出时间看看其他地方。尤其对旅游作家来说,外出探索是你工作的一部分!

3. Recruiting招聘

As a recruiter, you’ll be expected to travel to colleges and universities to recruit the best new talent. During the peak of recruiting season, you’ll probably spend more time on the road than in your own bed, but during the off-season, you’ll find yourself spending more time in the office。作为招聘官,你会去各个大学招聘最有潜力的人。在求职季,你在路上的时间或许比休息的时间更多,但是求职季一过,你会在办公室工作更久。

4. Sales销售

While some sales jobs require you to stay behind a desk or in a retail store, others — like pharmaceutical sales — require you to cover a territory, which involves lots of travel. Depending on the size of the company, that travel could involve simply driving to different cities in your geographic area, or it could involve flying to a different state every week。虽然一些销售人员会坐在柜台后或零售店里,但是其他销售员——比如药商——需要你在一个大区域推销,这可能需要你频繁出差。根据公司规模大小,你可能在几个城市间穿梭,也有可能每周去不同的国家。

5. Teaching English英语老师

English teachers are in high demand in many foreign countries, and in most cases, you don’t even need a teaching credential to score this gig. The travel involved in this job is of a different sort — you won’t be seeing a new place every week, but you will get to fully absorb the culture around you. Most of these positions require a year-long commitment, so you could teach for a year in one country and then move on to the next。英语老师在国外很受欢迎,在很多情况下你甚至不需要教师凭证就能上任。在这个职位中,旅行的方式不同——你不需要每周到一个新的地方,却要深入了解你身边的文化。这份工作需要长期的投入,所以你有可能会在一个国家呆上一年再去其他国家。

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