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英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑
2023/10/15 6:03:30 | 浏览:867 | 评论:0

  近日,英国伦敦大学学院的研究人员对1万多名英国年轻人进行调查发现,与直接步入职场的同龄人相比,上大学的年轻人更容易受到抑郁和焦虑的困扰。

  英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑

  🤔️小作业:

  1. What does Dr. Tayla McCloud suggest might be a newly emerging reason for poor mental health among university students?

  a)The social environment of university

  b)Previous life experiences

  c)The economic and financial pressures

  d)Gender and cultural factors

  2. Which of the following best encapsulates Dr. Gemma Lewis’s view on mental health in higher education?

  a)It improves long-term educational achievement.

  b)It shows no difference between students and non-students.

  c)It requires immediate action for the betterment of society.

  d)It will have a lasting impact on individuals’ future well-being.

  英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑

  无注释原文:

  University students more at risk of depression than non-students – study

  From:The Guardian

  University students are more at risk of depression and anxiety than their peers who go straight into work, according to a study, suggesting mental health may deteriorate due to the financial strain of higher education.

  The research is the first to find evidence of slightly higher levels of depression and anxiety among students, and challenges earlier work suggesting that the mental health of students is the same as or better than their peers.

  The first author of the study, Dr Tayla McCloud, a researcher in the psychiatry department at University College London(UCL), said the fact that the link between university and poor mental health had not been established in earlier studies could mean that it is due to “increased financial pressures and worries about achieving high results in the wider economic and social context”.

  As well as grappling with rising costs due to inflation, university students this year are facing unprecedented rent rises averaging at 8% and far outstripping the average maintenance loan in many cities.

  McCloud said she would have ordinarily expected university students to have better mental health as they tend to be from more privileged backgrounds, making the results “particularly concerning” and requiring more research to pinpoint the risks facing students.

  The corresponding author, Dr Gemma Lewis, associate professor at UCL’s school of psychiatry, said poorer mental health at university could have repercussions in later life.

  She said:“The first couple of years of higher education are a crucial time for development, so if we could improve the mental health of young people during this time it could have long-term benefits for their health and wellbeing, as well as for their educational achievement and longer term success.”

  The research paper, published in the Lancet Public Health and commissioned by the Department for Education, states that by the age of 25 the difference in mental health had disappeared between graduates and non-graduates.

  The analysis suggested that if the potential mental health risks of attending higher education were eliminated, the incidence of depression and anxiety could be reduced by 6% among people aged 18-19.

  The researchers used data from the Longitudinal Studies of Young People in England, which includes 4,832 young people born in 1989-90, who were aged 18-19 in 2007-9, and 6,128 participants born in 1998-99, aged 18-19 in2016-18. In both studies, just over half attended higher education.

  Participants completed surveys about their mental health to investigate symptoms of depression, anxiety and social dysfunction at multiple points over the years.

  The researchers found a small difference in symptoms of depression and anxiety at age 18-19 between students and non-students, even controlling for factors including socioeconomic status, parents’ education and alcohol use.

  Their findings were echoed in research from King’s College London that found reported mental health problems among university students had almost tripled between 2016-17 and 2022-23, rising from 6% to 16%, and were especially prevalent among female and non-binary students.

  A significant part of this increase occurred in the last 12 months, coinciding with the cost of living crisis.

  The research found that among students considering dropping out of university, the proportion citing financial distress rose from 3.5% to 8% between 2022 and 2023.

  - ◆ -

  注:完整题目见本文开头;中文文本为机器翻译并非一一对应,仅供参考

  含注释全文:

  University students more at risk of depression than non-students – study

  From:The Guardian

  University students are more at risk of depression and anxiety than theirpeerswho go straight into work, according to a study, suggesting mental health maydeterioratedue to the financialstrainof higher education.

  研究显示,与直接步入职场的同龄人相比,大学生更容易受到抑郁和焦虑的困扰,这表明由于高等教育的经济压力可能会导致心理健康状况恶化。

  peer

  作动词,表示“仔细看,端详;费力地看”,英文解释为“to look carefully or with difficulty”举个🌰:When no one answered the door, she peered through the window to see if anyone was there. 没有人开门,她就费力地透过窗户朝里望去,看是否有人在。

  作名词,表示“同龄人;同辈;同等社会地位(或能力)的人”,英文解释为“a person who is the same age or has the same social position or the same abilities as other people in a group”

  deteriorate

  deteriorate /dɪˈtɪə.ri.ə.reɪt/ 表示“恶化,变坏”,英文解释为“to become worse”举个🌰:She was taken into hospital last week when her condition suddenly deteriorated. 她是在上周病情突然恶化时被送进医院的。

  strain

  1)表示“压力;重负;重压之下出现的问题(或担忧等)”,英文解释为“pressure on sb/sth because they have too much to do or manage, or sth very difficult to deal with; the problems, worry or anxiety that this produces”举个🌰:You will learn to cope with the stresses and strains of public life. 你要学会怎样应付公众人物生活的紧张和辛劳。

  2)表示“(动植物的)品系,株系,品种”,英文解释为“an animal or plant from a particular group whose characteristics are different in some way from others of the same group”举个🌰:Scientists have discovered a new strain of the virus which is much more dangerous. 科学家们已经发现了一种危险得多的新病毒。

  📍此前9000名乘客因鼻拭子重复使用受害文中出现的例句:The health ministry confirmed this week that it had recorded two cases of the more infectious strain that was first detected in India. 卫生部本周证实,已发现了两例在印度首次发现的更具传染性的病毒株。

  3)strains 表示“旋律;曲调”,英文解释为“the sound of music being played or performed”举个🌰:I could hear the strains of Mozart in the background. 我听见背景音中有莫扎特的旋律。

  The research is the first to find evidence of slightly higher levels of depression and anxiety among students, and challenges earlier work suggesting that the mental health of students is the same as or better than their peers.

  这项研究首次发现了学生群体中抑郁和焦虑程度略高的证据,这挑战了早期工作中认为学生的心理健康状况与同龄人相同或更好的观点。

  The first author of the study, Dr Tayla McCloud, a researcher in thepsychiatrydepartment at University College London(UCL), said the fact that the link between university and poor mental health had not been established in earlier studies could mean that it is due to “increased financial pressures and worries about achieving high results in the wider economic and social context”.

  该研究第一作者,伦敦大学学院(UCL)精神病学系研究员泰拉·麦克劳德博士(Dr Tayla McCloud)指出,早期研究未能确认大学与心理健康不佳之间的关联,这可能意味着这种关联是由于“在更广泛的经济和社会环境中,经济压力增大以及对取得优异成绩的担忧”所导致的。

  psychiatry

  psychiatry /saɪˈkaɪətrɪ/ 表示“精神病学”,英文解释为“Psychiatry is the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of mental illness.”

  📍词根“-iatry”表示“医学”,前缀“psych-”表示“精神”。

  As well asgrappling withrising costs due toinflation, university students this year are facingunprecedentedrent rises averaging at 8% and faroutstrippingthe averagemaintenanceloan in many cities.

  除了应对通货膨胀带来的成本上升之外,今年大学生们还面临着前所未有的房租上涨,平均涨幅高达8%,远远超过许多城市的平均生活费贷款。

  grapple with

  1)表示“扭打;搏斗”,英文解释为“to take a firm hold of sb/sth and struggle with them”举个🌰:Passers-by grappled with the man after the attack. 袭击之后过路人便与这男人扭打起来。

  2)表示“努力设法解决;尽力解决;设法对付;尽量克服”,英文解释为“to try hard to find a solution to a problem”举个🌰:The government has yet to grapple with the problem of air pollution. 政府还需尽力解决空气污染问题。

  🎬电影《钢铁侠3》(Iron Man 3)中的台词提到:trying to grapple with something from some hard-crypt data files 希望能在一些加密的数据文件里找到线索...

  英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑

  inflation

  表示“通货膨胀”,英文解释为“a general, continuous increase in prices”如:high/low inflation 高/低通货膨胀。

  unprecedented

  unprecedented /ʌnˈpres.ɪ.den.tɪd/ 表示“史无前例的,空前的;绝无仅有的”,英文解释为“never having happened or existed in the past”举个🌰:This century has witnessed environmental destruction on an unprecedented scale. 环境在本世纪遭到了空前的破坏。

  词源和词根:"un-"是"不"的意思,"precedented"来自拉丁语的"praecedere",意为"走在前面"。派生词:unprecedentedly,常用短语:unprecedented event 空前的事件。

  🎬电影《星运里的错》(The Fault in Our Stars)中的台词提到:You are so busy being you that you have no idea how utterly unprecedented you are. 你太忙于做自己 都没有意识到自己是那么的令人心动。

  英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑

  outstrip

  outstrip /ˌaʊtˈstrɪp/ 表示“(在数量、程度或成就上)超过,胜过”,英文解释为“to be or become greater in amount, degree, or success than something or someone”举个🌰:The demand for food in the war zone now far outstrips supply. 现在战区对于粮食的需求远远超过了供应量。

  maintenance

  maintenance /ˈmeɪn.tən.əns/ 1)表示“养护(保持道路、建筑、机器设备等状态良好的工作)”,英文解释为“the work needed to keep a road, building, machine, etc. in good condition”举个🌰:Old houses need a lot of maintenance. 老房子需要大量保养。

  2)表示“(法律规定离婚后需定期支付用以供养孩子或前配偶的)抚养费,生活费”,英文解释为“money that a person must pay regularly by law in order to support their child or previous marriage partner after a divorce(= official end to a marriage)”

  3)表示“维持;保持”,英文解释为“a situation in which something continues to exist or is not allowed to become less”如:the maintenance of living standards 生活水平的保持。

  McCloud said she would have ordinarily expected university students to have better mental health as they tend to be from moreprivilegedbackgrounds, making the results “particularly concerning” and requiring more research topinpointthe risks facing students.

  麦克劳德表示,她原本认为大学生的心理健康状况会更好,因为他们往往来自更为优越的家庭环境。这使得研究结果显得“尤为令人担忧”,并需要更多研究以确定学生面临的风险。

  privileged

  privileged /ˈprɪv.əl.ɪdʒd/ 表示“享有特权的;特许的;受特别优待的”,英文解释为“having a privilege”举个🌰:She enjoys a very privileged status. 她享有特权地位。

  pinpoint

  pinpoint /ˈpɪn.pɔɪnt/ 作动词,表示“查明,准确地说出,描述(事实真相)”,英文解释为“to discover or explain exactly the real facts about something or the cause of a problem”举个🌰:It’s difficult to pinpoint the cause of the accident. 事故原因很难查明。

  作形容词,表示“确切的,精确的”,英文解释为“very exact”举个🌰:The computer will calculate your position with pinpoint accuracy. 计算机能够精确地计算出你的位置。

  Thecorrespondingauthor, Dr Gemma Lewis, associate professor at UCL’s school of psychiatry, said poorer mental health at university could haverepercussionsin later life.

  该研究的通讯作者,伦敦大学学院精神病学系副教授杰玛·刘易斯博士(Dr Gemma Lewis)表示,大学期间心理健康较差可能会对未来的生活造成影响。

  corresponding

  corresponding /ˌkɒr.ɪˈspɒn.dɪŋ/ 表示“相似的;相应的;对等的”,英文解释为“similar to, connected with, or caused by something else”举个🌰:Company losses were 50 percent worse than in the corresponding period last year. 与去年同期相比,公司亏损增加了50%。

  correspond /ˌkɒr.ɪˈspɒnd/ 作动词,还可以表示“通信”,英文解释为“to communicate by writing a letter or sending an email”举个🌰:I've been corresponding with several experts in the field. 我一直在与该领域的几位专家保持通信往来。

  📍corresponding author“通讯作者”,是指在学术论文或研究报告中负责与编辑或审稿人进行沟通的作者。在多作者论文中,通讯作者(corresponding author)通常是负责整个研究项目或论文写作的人,也是接收与论文有关所有官方通知(如接受、修订、拒绝等)的人。他或她通常会在论文的作者列表中特别标注,并提供联系方式,以便其他研究人员或读者与其联系,以获取更多关于该研究的信息。

  repercussion

  repercussion /ˌriːpəˈkʌʃən/ 表示“后果”,英文解释为“If an action or event has repercussions, it causes unpleasant things to happen some time after the original action or event.”举个🌰:It was an effort which was to have painful repercussions. 那是一个将产生沉痛后果的尝试。

  She said:“The first couple of years of higher education are a crucial time for development, so if we could improve the mental health of young people during this time it could have long-term benefits for their health and wellbeing, as well as for their educational achievement and longer term success.”

  她说:“高等教育的头几年是发展的关键时期,如果我们能在这段时间改善年轻人的心理健康,可能对他们的健康和幸福,以及他们的教育成就和长期的成功有长远的好处。”

  The research paper, published in the Lancet Public Health andcommissionedby the Department for Education, states that by the age of 25 the difference in mental health had disappeared between graduates and non-graduates.

  这项发表在《柳叶刀公共卫生》(Lancet Public Health)期刊上的研究由教育部委托。研究指出,到25岁时,大学毕业生和非大学毕业生在心理健康方面的差异已经消失。

  commission

  1)作名词,表示“(负责调查问题真相或原因的)委员会”,英文解释为“a group of people who have been formally chosen to discover information about a problem or examine the reasons why the problem exists”如:a commission on alcohol abuse/racial tension 酗酒问题/种族间紧张关系调查委员会。

  2)作动词,表示“委任(或任命)…为军官”,英文解释为“to give someone the official authority to be an officer in the armed forces”举个🌰:She was commissioned in 2023. 她于2023年被任命为军官。

  3)作动词,表示“(正式地)安排…做,委托…做”,英文解释为“to formally choose someone to do a special piece of work, or to formally ask for a special piece of work from someone”举个🌰:She's commissioned an artist to paint her portrait. 她请了一位艺术家为她画肖像。

  4)in commission表示“(机器、军舰等)在使用中的,在服役的”,英文解释为“If something, such as a machine or a military ship, is in commission it is working and ready for use.”这个含义也可以直接将commission当作动词用,相当于to put(a ship)in commission. 举个🌰:The ship was commissioned in 2023. 该舰于2023年服役。

  The analysis suggested that if the potential mental health risks of attending higher education wereeliminated, theincidenceof depression and anxiety could be reduced by 6% among people aged 18-19.

  分析表明,如果消除接受高等教育可能带来的心理健康风险,18-19岁的人群中抑郁和焦虑症的发病率可降低6%。

  eliminate

  1)表示“排除;消除;清除”,英文解释为“to remove or take away someone or something”举个🌰:A move towards healthy eating could help eliminate heart disease. 养成健康的饮食习惯有助于消除心脏病诱因。

  2)表示“(比赛中)淘汰”,英文解释为“to defeat someone so that they cannot continue in a competition”举个🌰:He was eliminated in the third round of the competition. 他在第3轮比赛中被淘汰。

  incidence

  incidence /ˈɪn.sɪ.dəns/ 表示“事件;(事件的)发生率”,英文解释为“an event, or the rate at which something happens”举个🌰:There have been quite a few incidences of bullying in the school this year. 今年该校发生了好几起欺凌弱小的事件。

  The researchers used data from theLongitudinalStudies of Young People in England, which includes 4,832 young people born in 1989-90, who were aged 18-19 in 2007-9, and 6,128 participants born in 1998-99, aged 18-19 in 2016-18. In both studies, just over half attended higher education.

  研究人员使用了英国年轻人纵向研究的数据,其中包括4832名出生于1989-90年,到2007-9年时年龄为18-19岁的年轻人,以及6128名出生于1998-99年、到2016-18年时年龄为18-19岁的年轻人。在这两组群体研究中,略多于一半的人接受过高等教育。

  longitudinal

  longitudinal /ˌlɒŋ.ɡɪˈtʃuː.dɪ.nəl/ 1)表示“经线的”,英文解释为“used to refer to lines or distances east or west of an imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole ”举个🌰:Longitudinal lines run from north to south. 经线的方向是由北至南。

  2)表示“纵向研究,纵贯研究”,英文解释为“Longitudinal research is done on people or groups over a long period of time.”如:longitudinal analysis/studies 纵向分析/研究。

  Participants completed surveys about their mental health to investigate symptoms of depression, anxiety and socialdysfunctionat multiple points over the years.

  多年来,参与者在不同阶段都完成了心理健康调查,以便深入了解他们是否存在抑郁、焦虑或社交功能障碍的症状。

  dysfunction

  dysfunction /dɪsˈfʌŋk.ʃən/ 表示“功体失调;机能不良”,英文解释为“a problem or fault in a part of the body or a machine”举个🌰:There appears to be a dysfunction in the patient's respiratory system. 患者的呼吸系统似乎出现功能失调。

  The researchers found a small difference in symptoms of depression and anxiety at age 18-19 between students and non-students, even controlling for factors including socioeconomic status, parents’ education and alcohol use.

  即使控制了包括社会经济地位、父母受教育程度和饮酒等因素,研究人员也发现18-19岁的学生和非学生之间在抑郁和焦虑症状上存在微小差异。

  Their findings wereechoedin research from King’s College London that found reported mental health problems among university students had almosttripledbetween 2016-17 and 2022-23, rising from 6% to 16%, and were especiallyprevalentamong female andnon-binarystudents.

  伦敦国王学院(King's College London)的研究也证实了他们的发现,该研究发现,从2016-17年到2022-23年,大学生中报告的心理健康问题数量几乎增长了两倍,从6%上升到16%,女性和非二元性别的学生中尤为普遍。

  echo

  作动词,表示“重复,附和;使产生似曾相识的感觉”,英文解释为“If you echo someone's words, you repeat them or express agreement with their attitude or opinion.”举个🌰:Their views often echo each other. 他们的见解常常彼此附和。

  作名词,1)表示“回声,回音,回响”,英文解释为“a sound that is heard after it has been reflected off a surface such as a wall or a cliff”举个🌰:The echoes of his scream sounded in the cave for several seconds. 他的尖叫声在洞中回荡了好几秒钟。

  2)表示“十分相似的东西;如出一辙的事物;仿效”,英文解释为“a detail that is similar to and makes you remember something else”举个🌰:There are echoes of Mozart in her first piano compositions. 她最早创作的钢琴曲有些地方模仿了莫扎特。

  triple

  triple /ˈtrɪp.əl/ 表示“(使)成三倍,(使)增加两倍”,英文解释为“to increase three times in size or amount, or to make something do this”举个🌰:We have tripled our output over the past two years. 过去两年里,我们的产量增加了两倍。

  prevalent

  表示“盛行的;普遍存在的”,英文解释为“A condition, practice, or belief that is prevalent is common.”举个🌰:This condition is more prevalent in women than in men. 这种情况在女性中比在男性中更为普遍。

  🎬电影《感谢你抽烟》(Thank you for smoking)中的台词提到:The health issue's way too prevalent. 健康问题太普遍了。

  英国伦敦大学学院研究发现:高校学生相比同龄人更易抑郁和焦虑

  对比:📍pervasive表示“到处存在的,到处弥漫着的,遍布的”,英文解释为“Something, especially something bad, that is pervasive is present or felt throughout a place or thing.”如:the pervasive influence of mobile phones in daily life 手机在日常生活中无处不在的影响。

  non-binary

  binary本身表示“二进制的”(The binary system expresses numbers using only the two digits 0 and 1. It is used especially in computing.)在计算机的世界里,处理的实际上都是0和1这两个数字。

  此处binary表示“二元的;有两个不同部分的”,英文解释为“Binary describes something that has two different parts.” non-binary就是表示“非二元性別的”,英文解释为“having a gender identity(= feeling of being a particular gender)that is not simply male or female”. 也被广泛称作Genderqueer(性别酷儿),用来指称那些超越传统意义上对男性或女性的二元划分、不单纯属于男性或女性的自我性别认同。

  📍此前纽约时报的有一篇文章专门讲述了Nonbinary一词:“Washington, D.C., schools are the latest, with a small change on the public school enrollment form for next year that some members of the L.G.B.T.Q. community regard as a big step forward:The term “nonbinary,” which refers to people who do not identify exclusively as male or female, will be included as a gender choice.” “华盛顿特区的学校对明年的公立学校入学表格做出了一个小改动:“非二元性别的”——意指那些性别认同不单纯属于男性或女性的人,被加入到性别选择中。这是被一些L.G.B.T.Q.群体成员认为是一大进步的最新例子。”

  A significant part of this increase occurred in the last 12 months,coincidingwith the cost of living crisis.

  这一增长很大一部分发生在过去12个月,恰逢生活成本危机。

  coincide

  coincide /ˌkəʊ.ɪnˈsaɪd/ 1)表示“(两件或更多的事情)同时发生”,英文解释为“(of two or more events)to take place at the same time”举个🌰:It's a pity our trips to Hangzhou don't coincide. 真遗憾我们不能同一时间去杭州旅行。I timed my holiday to coincide with the children's. 我把我的假期安排在孩子们学校放假的时候。

  2)表示“(想法、意见等)相同;相符;极为类似”,英文解释为“(of ideas, opinions, etc.)to be the same or very similar”举个🌰:The interests of employers and employees do not always coincide. 雇主和雇员的利益并不总是一致的。

  The research found that among students considering dropping out of university, theproportionciting financial distress rose from 3.5% to 8% between 2022 and 2023.

  研究发现,在2022年至2023年间,考虑辍学的学生中,因经济困难而辍学的比例从3.5%上升至8%。

  proportion

  1)表示“比率,比例”,英文解释为“the number, amount, or level of one thing when compared to another”举个🌰:The proportion of women to men at my college was about one to eight. 我所在大学的男女比例大约为8:1。

  2)表示“部分;份额”,英文解释为“the number or amount of a group or part of something when compared to the whole”举个🌰:Children make up a large proportion of the world's population. 孩子占世界人口的很大一部分。

  3)表示“(某物各个组成部分或一物与另一物之间的)相称,协调,均衡,匀称”,英文解释为“the correct or most attractive relationship between the size of different parts of the same thing or between one thing and another”举个🌰:Your legs are very much in proportion to(= the right size for)the rest of your body. 你的腿和你身体的其他部位比例非常协调。

  - 词汇盘点 -

  peer、 deteriorate、 strain、 psychiatry、 grapple with、 inflation、 unprecedented、 outstrip、 maintenance、 privileged、 pinpoint、 corresponding、 repercussion、 commission、 eliminate、 incidence、 longitudinal、 dysfunction、 echo、 triple、 prevalent、 non-binary、 coincide、 proportion

  - 词汇助记 By ChatGPT -

  In an unprecedented move, a commission in psychiatry aimed to pinpoint the incidence of mental strain among non-binary peers. As inflation outstripped maintenance grants, students grappled with deteriorating mental health. Longitudinal studies echoed this, tripling corresponding data. The prevalent dysfunction had repercussions, coinciding with a privileged focus to eliminate this proportion.

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